Autism is a developmental disorder of neuropathology characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
All these signs begin before a child is 3 years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize
The specific cause is not exactly known. Several chromosomal abnormalities contribute and prenatal infections may also play a role.
Autistic children develop symptoms in at least three of the following areas
- Social relationships
An autistic infant does not cuddle and avoids eye contact .Older autistic children often prefer to play by themselves and do not form close personal relationships. They are not able to interpret the moods and expressions of others and communicate with gestures instead of words and may treat others as if they are objects
About 50% of autistic children never learn to speak. They often repeat words spoken to them or reverse the normal use of pronouns. They often speak with an unusual rhythm and pitch.
Autistic children are very resistant to changes such as new food, toys, furniture arrangements and clothing. Show unusual attachments to objects. Decreased attention and lack of interest, either overactive or very passive. They often repeat certain acts like rocking, hand flapping or spinning objects in a repetitive manner
About 70% have some degree of mental retardation. They usually do better on tests of spatial and motor skills than on verbal tests. Some have idiosyncratic or splinter skills, such as the ability to perform complex mental arithmetic or advanced music skills.
Have heightened or low senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell or taste and even pain. May find normal noises painful and hold hands over ears .May withdraw from physical contact because it is overstimulating or overwhelming.Rubs surfaces, mouth or licks objects
The treatment modalities can be applied in two aspects by observing the child whether hyperactive or depressive. Accordingly internal medicines and external therapies can be applied.
Apart from the medications, these types of children need extra care and therapies like speech therapy and occupational therapy.
After having a thorough interaction the doctor can prescribe internal medicines and the external therapies including udvarthanam, thalam, abyangam, sirodhara, vasthi, siropichu, nasyam , with medicines appropriate for the condition of the child.